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Shklovsky is perhaps best known for developing the concept of otstranenie or defamiliarization (also translated as “estrangement”) in literature. He explained the concept in the important essay “Art as Technique” (also translated as “Art as Device”) which comprised the first chapter of his seminal Theory of Prose, first published in 1925:
“The purpose of art is to impart the sensation of things as they are perceived and not as they are known. The technique of art is to make objects ‘unfamiliar’, to make forms difficult, to increase the difficulty and length of perception because the process of perception is an aesthetic end in itself and must be prolonged. Art is a way of experiencing the artfulness of an object; the object is not important.” (Shklovsky, “Art as Technique”, 12)
For more background history and information check out Shklovsky: Witness to an Era
Victor Shklovsky Wikipedia page. Available at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Shklovsky>. [Accessed Jan 2012].